The Amritsar Massacre

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 10 – The Amritsar Massacre and its aftermath

John Hambly tells us about the Amritsar Massacre and its aftermath. Often referred to as the Jallianwala Bagh massacre because that was the area of Amritsar where it took place in.

John starts by setting the scene and telling us about the key players on both sides.

Background:

During the First World War the Indian sub-continent had contributed many soldiers to the British war effort. Because of this there were expectations from the population for increased status.

The Defence of India Act of 1915 limited civil and political liberties. The very unpopular Rowlatt Act followed.

Michael O’Dwyer:

The Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab had been active in the passing of the Defence of India Act because it gave him great powers!

From mid-March 1919 the CID in Amritsar kept a close surveillance of two Gandhian non-violent Indian nationalists. On 10th April 1919, O’Dwyer summoned them, had them arrested and secretly escorted to Dharamasala, at the foot of the Himalayas.

He supported Dyer’s actions in the massacre. Aged 75, he was shot dead, 21 years later, at a meeting in Caxton Hall, Westminster.

Brigadier General Reginald Dyer

The Brigadier General rank was temporary because his substantive rank was Colonel.

He is known as the ‘Butcher of Amritsar’. This is because he gave the order to fire. This resulted in the death of at least 379 people and injuries to over 1,000 more.

Dyer was removed from duty following the massacre and widely condemned in both Britain and India.

The aftermath

Many senior Indians had been pushing for Dominion status (like Canada and Australia) before the massacre. After, many abandoned their loyalty to British rule and became Nationalists who distrusted British rule.

Hear the whole story by listening to this podcast. There is an echo and some electronic buzzing sounds resulting from the PA system.

The are no graphics to accompany this talk.

Please Note: The description of scenes in this talk may be distressing to some people.

The quotations and actions described in this talk represent views held at the time of the Massacre. They do not represent the views of John Hambly, the Farnham U3A World History Group and The MrT Podcast Studio.

About this podcast:

The Farnham U3A site is found here.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Castbox, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

British Art between the Wars

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 09 – British Art  between the Wars

Peter Duffy tells us about the key contributors to British Art between the Wars. Peter starts by introducing is to Britain before the First World War. He tells us about art at that time,

Artists:

We are introduced to the leading artistic talents of the time.

  • Paul Nash a British surrealist painter and war artist. He was also a photographer, writer and designer of applied art. He was among the most important landscape artists of the time and played a key role in the development of Modernism in English art.

Self portrait woodcut – in the Public Domain

  • by George Charles Beresford, half-plate glass negative, 1913 – In the Public Domain

    Wyndham Lewis was an English writer, painter, and critic. He was a co-founder of the Vorticist art movement and edited the Vorticist literary magazine called Blast.

Posted to the western front as a second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery, he spent much of his time ‘spotting’ in Forward Observation Posts. He registered targets and called down fire from batteries massed around the rim of the Ypres Salient. After the 3rd Battle of Ypres he was appointed as an official war artist for both the Canadian and British governments.

  • We hear about other members of the Vortices Group including:
    • William Roberts,
    • David Bomberg,
    • Eric Wadsworth
    • Jacob Epstein,
    • Jessica Dismorr,
    • C R W Nevinson, all of whom studied at the Slade School of Art. Many of these artists studied under Henry Tonks, an ex surgeon given to sarcasm.
More artists:

Peter then talks about the artists:

  • Stanley Spencer,
  • Mark Gertler,
  • Dora Carrington, and
  • Ben Nicholson.

World War 1:

The war had a great impact on Society and the artists. There was a great difference between those who fought and those who didn’t.

The Bloomsbury Group artists were non-combatants and were conscious of the changes that the war had brought. This led to divergences of opinion.

Many of the artists who were war artists were very far behind the lines others had direct experience of the conflict.

Those who had experience of the front line include Paul Nash, David Bomberg, Wyndham Lewis, William Roberts and David Jones. Jessica Dismorr cared for the wounded.

Hear the whole story by listening to this fascinating podcast.

The are no graphics to accompany this talk:

Copyright restrictions apply to much of the art in the original talk and so it cannot be included on this page. You will find much of it on the Internet on the sites of the owners of the copyright.

About this podcast:

The Farnham U3A site is found at Farnham U3A Home Page.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Castbox, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

Ataturk – the greatest Nation Builder of modern times

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 08 – Ataturk – the greatest Nation Builder of modern times

Alan Freeland tells us the amazing story of the life of  Ataturk – the greatest Nation Builder of modern times. To call Ataturk a complex person is a great understatement! Alan takes us through the ups and downs of Ataturk’s life.

Everything changed under Ataturk. The name Ataturk means ‘Father of the nation of Turkey’. For many years the major European powers wielded global control. This was the first time a nation stood up to Europe and won.

Section 1:

Alan calls this session ‘historiography’. The dictionary defines this as ‘the study of the writing of history and of written histories’. Alan certainly did a great deal of research for this talk.

Section 2:

This section sets the scene. Alan talks about the rise and decline of the Ottoman Empire. He also introduces us to the complex culture in Turkey at that time. We learn that although Turkey was an Islamic country other religions were tolerated.

Section 3:

Alan continues by telling us about the complexities of Ataturk’s life. We learn about his focus on modernising Turkey and the lengths that he went to to achieve his aims.

The talk does cover a significant amount of history as this is critical for our understanding of his achievements. Alan touches on the First World War because that was where Ataturk made his reputation.

We hear about the war to achieve independence and how the republic came about.

And finally….

We hear about his relationships with other people. Alan tells us about his marriage to someone who fully understood his mission. We hear of the care she tried to give him because of his heath. Being a strong willed person it was in vain!

Listen to the podcast to find out more!

The are no graphics to accompany this talk
About this podcast:

The Farnham U3A site is found at Farnham U3A Home Page.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Castbox, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

Sleepwalking into World War 1

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 06 – Sleepwalking into World War 1

Lorna Thomas tells us the fascinating story about the nations Sleepwalking into World War 1. She starts by telling us about the protagonists.

A time of great Empires, Empires with ambitions to expand. At the same time, some Empires were weakening with states seeking  independence. Because of these factors it was a time of stress, particularly in Europe.

A World War:

Soldiers came from across the Empires of the belligerents. The British forces had soldiers from Canada, India, the West Indies, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa to name a few. The French and German armies were similar.

The Catalyst:

Lorna discusses the issues in the Austro Hungarian Empire and the support it was receiving from Germany.

We hear about Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand’s visit to Sarajevo and are introduced to the principal players. Lorna tells us about the demands made on Serbia following the assassination.

The Alliances:

The key alliances were:

  • The Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, and
  • The Triple Entente – France, Great Britain and Russia. In addition Serbia and Montenegro were allies of Russia.
Overconfidence in the outcome?

Franz Joseph was 83 at the time of Sarajevo. One of his key advisers believed in ‘war, war, war’. In addition Kaiser Wilhelm’s advisers had planned for war in Europe for many years.

Russia had a vast army and promised support to Serbia and Montenegro.

The launching of HMS Dreadnought made many of the world’s navies obsolete.

France had lost territory to Germany in the war of 1870 and resented the defeat.

Germany believed that they would win because if the Triple Entente fought they’d be defeated and if they didn’t, the alliance would collapse.

Fallout in the family?

Queen Victoria, the Grand-mamma of Europe, might have had an influence if she’d been alive because Kaiser Wilhelm, Tsar Nicholas and King George were all close relatives.

Listen to the podcast to find out more!

View the slides that accompany this talk:

Please click on a thumbnail to open the gallery:

About this podcast:

The Farnham U3A site is found at Farnham U3A Home Page.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Castbox, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

All about Prohibition

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 06 – Prohibition

Joanne Watson tells us about Prohibition. She starts by covering the journey that the US followed to the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment. We then hear about what happened after.

Moral conscience:

There was a flowering of moral conscience after the abolition of slavery. American adults drank an average of 1.7 bottles of 80% proof spirits a week in 1830. That equates to 3.5 bottles of spirits at today’s strength.

Someone commented ‘Americans drink from the crack of dawn to the next crack of dawn’.

The first suggestions of Prohibition came in the 1840s. The US enacted their first laws in 1851.

Alcohol generates taxes

Alcohol taxes came and went in the US. They were applied when the government was short of money.

The road to Prohibition:

The United States started to look at Prohibition from 1896. The Acts that were proposed never got past the Committee Stages.

Canada enacted their laws before the US. In Canada doctors could prescribe alcohol. The were queues of patients before holidays – the prescription? Pints!

‘Lemonade’ Lucy Hayes was the wife of President Rutherford B Hayes. She was an activist and he banned alcohol in the White House.

Carrie Amelia Nation was another active member of the Temperance movement. She used to stand outside bars singing hymns and throwing rocks. Then she graduated to using a hatchet to destroy the bars. She was arrested many times but made money from the sales of replica hatchets.

The British Government enacted licensing restrictions during the First World War. Lloyd George said ‘we are fighting the Germans, the Austrians and the drink and the drink is the deadliest’.

75% of the US States ratified the Eighteenth Amendment by early January 1919.

The law took effect in January 1920 and then the lawlessness began. F Scott Fitzgerald said that ‘during prohibition the parties were bigger, the pace was faster and the morals were looser’.

You’ll need to listen to Joanne to hear the full story.

About this podcast:

The Farnham U3A site is found at Farnham U3A Home Page.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Castbox, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

Into the Outback (part B)

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 05b – Into the Outback (part B) with Captain Charles Sturt and John McDouall Stuart

Into the Outback (part B) is Michael A’Bear’s talk about the explorers Captain Charles Sturt and John McDouall Stuart. He tells us about their discoveries and the cost to their health.

Captain Charles Sturt:

Charles Sturt comes from the generation before Burke and Wills. He was born in 1795 in Bengal. At the age of 5 he went to England to go to school. He lived with members of his family he had not met before.

He went to Prep school and then on to Harrow. Although Cambridge University beckoned the family finances weren’t enough. He got a commission in the Army instead and served in the Peninsular War.

After promotion to Captain he volunteered to take command of the guard for a convict ship. He liked Australia and decided to stay.

Sturt became Surveyor General for South Australia. Unfortunately the British Government appointed someone else and he was out of a job! He married and let his wife, and some other women, accompany his expedition to the Murray Darling River.

Sadly he was never a wealthy man and ventures in both Australia and Britain were not a success. He returned to England and died at the age of 74.

John McDouall Stuart:

He was born in Scotland. He arrived in Australia in 1839, aged 24.

Stuart was one of the most successful explorers of Australia. He led the first expedition that crossed the centre of Australia from South to North and returned safely. He showed great care for his men travelling in harsh country and has the reputation that he never lost a man.

The Australian Overland Telegraph Line was constructed along the route he found. This enabled rapid transmission of messages to Britain and the (then) Empire. The main road from Port Augusta, in South Australia, to Darwin, in the Northern Territory, also follows his route. It was named the Stuart Highway in 1942.

After many years of hard conditions, malnutrition, scurvy and other problems he was nearly blind. In April 1864 he left Australia for Britain. He died in London two years later.

Accompanying pictures:

Please click on a thumbnail to open the gallery:

About this podcast:

The Farnham U3A site is found at Farnham U3A Home Page.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Castbox, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

Burke and Wills – Talk 5a

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 05a – The Burke and Wills Expedition

Michael A’Bear’s talk is about the Burke and Wills Expedition into the Outback of Australia in 1860 to 1861. He tells us of initial success, suspect deeds and disaster!

The plan:

The Royal Society of Victoria organised the expedition. It started from Melbourne. The objective – to cross Australia from South to North to reach the Gulf of Carpentaria.

The distance is 2,000 miles through inhospitable territory. Territory that had not been explored by the settlers before.

Cooper’s Creek:

The advance party reached Cooper’s Creek by early summer. They established a depot camp with stores there. Four men remained at this camp.  They agreed to wait for 4 months. Burke, Wills and two others set off for the Gulf of Carpentaria. It was mid summer with temperatures of 50°C in the shade.

The Gulf of Carpentaria:

They got within sight of the coast but swamps prevented them from reaching it. The weather going north had been hot and dry but on the way back they had tropical monsoons. The party were also desperately short of food.

They shot, and ate, their only horse as well as three camels. They jettisoned equipment because of the reduced number of pack animals. Burke and Gray went down with dysentery and on 17th April Gray died.

Back at Cooper’s Creek:

The party at the base were suffering from scurvy. They waited 18 weeks and were running low on supplies. They buried supplies and left in the morning on 21st April.

That evening, Burke, Wills and King arrived. 9 hours too late!

They rested for a few days. They then set off for Mount Hopeless as there was a cattle station there.

The journey to Mount Hopeless

The journey led to the deaths of Burke and Wills. Six rescue groups went to look for them. King was like a scarecrow when rescued. He went back to Melbourne to recover. He lived for another eleven years, dying at the age of 33.

Accompanying pictures:

Please click on a thumbnail to open the gallery:

About this podcast:

The Farnham U3A site is found at Farnham U3A Home Page.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Castbox, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

Victorian Philanthropy

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 04 – Victorian Philanthropy and its Legacy

Judith Edge’s talk is about Victorian Philanthropy and its Legacy. She introduces us to four different people and one couple.

Joseph Rowntree:

A Quaker and businessman from York. He made his fortune from chocolate and created three Charitable trusts in 1904:

  • The Joseph Rowntree Village Trust to set up and manage the village of New Earswick. The village was built to provide homes for his employees.
  • The Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust. It is a Quaker trust that supports people who address the root causes of conflict and injustice.
  • The Joseph Rowntree Social Services Trust.
Octavia Hill:

We learn that she was an English social reformer. Octavia was concerned with the inhabitants of cities, especially London. She was a major force in the development of social housing.

A believer in self-reliance, this was a feature in the work that she did. She believed in ‘open spaces’ for all and was one of the three founders of the National Trust.

Angela Burdett-Coutts:

She was the daughter of Sir Francis Burdett, 5th Baronet and Sophia, the daughter of banker Thomas Coutts. In 1837 she became one of the wealthiest women in England. She inherited her grandfather’s fortune of around £1.8 million (£160 million in 2019).

She spent much of the rest of her life trying to use her fortune for good works. A great friend of Charles Dickens and the Duke of Wellington she married her American secretary in 1881. She was 67, he was 29! Because she married a foreigner 60% of her income transferred to her sister.

George Peabody:

Many of us have heard of the Peabody Trust. Did we know that he was an American?

George was born in Massachusetts in a town that now bears his name. His family were poor. He went into business and then into banking and moved to London in 1837.

In 1854 he partnered with J S Morgan and after his retirement the company became J P Morgan & Co.

Ada and Alfred Salter:

The talk finishes with the story of this couple who dedicated much of their lives to the people of Bermondsey.

About this podcast:

There are neither photographs nor a presentation available to accompany this podcast.

The Farnham U3A site is found at Farnham U3A Home Page.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

David Lloyd George

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 03 b – David Lloyd George

Michael A’Bear tells us about the life of David Lloyd George. There was no hyphen until he became a Lord!

We learn that David George was born in Hulme near Manchester.

His father was a teacher. When his father died the family was taken in by David’s uncle. They moved to his home. His uncle, Richard Lloyd, was a bootmaker, Baptist Minister and local politician.

David was articled at 16 to a solicitor in Porthmadog and qualified at 21. He started working from the back parlour in the family home and was successful. David married the daughter of a wealthy farmer when he was 25 and they had 5 children.

He won his first Parliamentary election by 19 votes and he represented the same constituency for the next 55 years. He became Chancellor in 1908 and remained in that position until 1915.

Lloyd George was implicated in the 1913 Marconi scandal. Accused of ‘insider dealing’ he denied this as he had not bought share in ‘that company’. In fact he had bought shares in the parent company.

He interfered in the way the military ran the First World War. There were many disagreements. Lloyd George became Prime Minister after a disagreement with Asquith and split the Liberal party.

He was a social reformer. The ‘Representation of the People Act, 1918, gave the vote to women over 30 and also allowed women to become MPs.

Lloyd George hated Neville Chamberlain and refused to join Churchill’s cabinet. He believed that Britain would lose the Second World War.

David Lloyd George –

  • A leader in war and peace
  • A social reformer
  • A salesman of honours
  • A serial womaniser. The woman who became his second wife was his mistress for many years.
  • A brilliant speaker
About this podcast:

There are neither photographs nor a presentation available to accompany this podcast.

The Farnham U3A site is found at Farnham U3A Home Page.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

Robert Baden-Powell

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 03 a – Robert Baden-Powell

Michael A’Bear tells us about the life of Robert Baden-Powell. We learn that he was born in Paddington in 1857. His father taught geometry at Oxford. Robert was the fifth of the six children borne by his mother. His mother was the daughter of an Admiral and the niece of a General.

Baden-Powell didn’t excel in lessons at school. He enjoyed stalking and tracking in the woods next to Charterhouse. He caught and cooked rabbits, making sure that no-one saw the fire-smoke. His school holidays were adventure holidays.

He joined the army in 1876. He was first stationed in India. The moved to Natal in the 1880s. He rapidly rose through the ranks. In 1897 he was the youngest Colonel in the army.

We learn about the siege of Mafeking in the Boer War. Baden-Powell became a national hero after Mafeking. He became a General and returned to England in 1903. His book ‘Aids to Scouting’ was a best seller.

He held an experimental camp on Brownsea Island in August 1907. He published ‘Scouting for Boys’ in six installments in 1908. In 1920 he asked his sister to start the Girl Guides.

Robert Baden-Powell lived with his wife at Pax Hill in Bentley for 20 years. They had a son and two daughters. In 1939 Robert and his wife moved to Kenya. He died there in January 1941, shortly before his 85th Birthday.

There are over 50 million ‘Scouts’ worldwide today.

About this podcast:

There are no photographs nor is there a presentation available to accompany this podcast.

The Farnham U3A site is found at Farnham U3A Home Page.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

The Scramble for Africa

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 02 – The Scramble for Africa and the Winds of Change

Richard Thomas tells us about the Scramble for Africa which took place over a short period at the end of the nineteenth century. He then goes on to tell us about the Winds of Change leading to African states gaining independence in the twentieth century.

In 1880 the European powers controlled around 10% of the continent. The scramble gained momentum following the Berlin Conference from 1884 to 1885. The colonisation had been completed only 30 years later when the European powers controlled 90% of the continent. Only Abyssinia (Ethiopia), Liberia and the Dervish state (a part of Somalia) retained their independence.

After telling us about the colonisation of Africa Richard continues his talk by telling us the story of how the countries re-gained their independence. Ghana (previously known as the Gold Coast) was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to gain independence. This happened on 6th March 1957.

About this podcast:

There are no photographs nor is there a presentation available to accompany this podcast.

The Farnham U3A site is found at Farnham U3A Home Page.

This podcast is also available through the Apple Podcasts, Deezer, Podchaser, Spotify and Stitcher ‘apps’.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

The London Underground

Season 2019 / 2020 – Talk 01 – The London Underground

The talk by Tim Davies on the London Underground is the first talk of the 2019 / 2020 year.

Tim tells us London before the Underground. Walkers ran the risk of unpleasantness from above and around their feet because people emptied chamber pots from above and horses and cattle on the streets also generated a great deal of compostable material.

On 10th January 1863 the arrival of the Metropolitan Railway changed this. The talk tells the story of the story of the planning and building of the line from Paddington to the city.

The talk covers the building techniques, tells the story of the expansion of the Underground and the coming of the deep ‘Tube’.  The development of ‘house styles’ is discussed, initially these varied by company. Frank Pick did much to develop the style we know today.

Inter-war investment is described covering the expansion of the network, new rolling stock, advertising and maps. We look at the building of London’s first skyscraper at 55 Broadway. This Grade I listed building has been the HQ of the Underground since it opened in 1929.

The final part of the talk looks at a number of disused stations and considers their place in history.

Please click on a thumbnail to open the gallery:

Interested in finding out more?

The London Transport Museum (LTM) in Covent Garden has licensed photographs used in this talk. Visit the Museum understand more about transport in London; find out more by clicking here.

There are Open Days at the LTM Museum Depot in Acton, click here to find out more.

To find out more about the Hidden London tours click here. I have found these to be both informative and enjoyable.

About this podcast:

The Farnham U3A site is at Farnham U3A Home Page.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2020

Aethelstan

Season 2018 / 2019 – Talk 16 D – Aethelstan

David Simpson’s talk on Aethelstan is the last in a series of four short talks given at the end of the Summer ‘Term’ to the Farnham U3A World History Group.

David tells us that he is a forgotten King from the Dark Ages. Aethelstan was the first King of the English! As late as the Elizabethan age he was seen as a hero in stage plays.

Aethelstan destroyed the invader in 937 and preserved the English throne. He was famous across Europe.

It is not possible to include all the pictures shown in the original talk because of copyright limitations.

Please follow this link for the presentation that accompanies the talk.

This is the last talk in this series of Short Talks. The 2019 series of talks will begin in a few weeks.

The Farnham U3A site is at Farnham U3A Home Page.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2019

The Chinese Art of Dissent

Season 2018 / 2019 – Talk 16 C – The Chinese Art of Dissent

Alan Freeland’s talk on The Chinese Art of Dissent is the third in a series of four short talks given at the end of the Summer ‘Term’ to the Farnham U3A World History Group.

The first part of the talk looks at the ‘scholar’ officials of the Ming Dynasty. Alan tells of the importance of scholarship in the Government of China over the years.

He talks about the trials and tribulations of the officials when there was a dynastic change. We learn about the use of ‘bamboo slips’ to create the written records.

The talk continues with the paintings of Gong Kai and Wang Hui. He ends by coming completely up to date with examples of modern dissidence expressed in art.

It is not possible to include all the pictures shown in the original talk because of copyright limitations.

Please follow this link for the presentation.

The last talks in this series of Short Talks will be published in the next week.

The Farnham U3A site is at Farnham U3A Home Page.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2019

Handel in London

Season 2018 / 2019 – Talk 16 B – Handel in London

Ian Wallace’s talk Handel in London is the second in a series of four short talks given to the Farnham U3A World History Group.

Ian’s talk charts the life of George Frederick Handel from his arrival in London until his death.

As a young man Handel travelled to Italy. He had composed his first opera by the age of 24. He then got leave of absence from his employer, the Elector of Hanover, to travel to London in 1710.

The Elector of Hanover became King George I in 1714.

Handel wrote very successful operas in Italian. The operas made a lot of money. As a result he was able to get the best Italian singers to perform in London.

Tastes changed. Italian operas became less popular. There were arguments about the cost of staging the operas.

Handel had a stroke when he was 52. He went to a Spar to ‘take the waters’. He made a good recovery and went back to work.

Charles Jennens wanted an oratorio based on the King James Bible. The result – The Messiah.

Handel is buried in Westminster Abbey.

Click here to open the presentation that accompanies this talk.

At the original talk on Handel in London included musical excerpts. These cannot be included in the podcast as they are copyright.

The other two talks in this series of Short Talks will be published over the next few weeks.

The Farnham U3A site is at Farnham U3A Home Page.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2019

In the Blood

Season 2018 / 2019 – Talk 16 A – In the Blood

Andrew Cole’s talk In the Blood is the first in a series of four short talks given to the Farnham U3A World History Group.

Andrew’s talk is about the influence that parents have on the careers chosen by their children.

He starts by asking the question ‘to what extent are eminent composers from professional musician families?’ In his analysis he went through the family trees of 100 famous composers. The composers came from the periods – pre-1700, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.

Andrew then created similar lists for other professions. He reviewed doctors, lawyers, clergy, engineers and novelists.

Andrew found that the strongest ‘in the blood’ links were amongst composers and the clergy.

Please click below to open a .PDF copy of Andrew’s presentation.

Presentation for ‘In the Blood’

The other three talks in this series of Short Talks will be published over the next few weeks.

The Farnham U3A site is at Farnham U3A Home Page.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A World History Group 2019

Spending a Penny (A)

Season 2018 / 2019 – Talk 14 A – Spending a Penny

Spending a Penny (A) is the first part of the talk by Tim Davies.

The organisers of the Great Exhibition appoint George Jennings to provide the ‘necessary convenience’ for the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park. He installed ‘monkey closets’ used by over 827,000 visitors. The charge? One penny! Visitors got a clean seat, a towel, comb and shoe shine.

Tim tells us about the many euphemisms for ‘spending a penny’. Do they come from a taboo?

The Romans had very advanced baths and sanitation. They were 1500 years ahead of their time in Britain.

Tim then talks about Chamber Pots and how they were disguised as furniture.

For many years the rivers were sewers. The ‘Great Stink’ of 1858 mad Parliament take notice. The Thames, the lifeblood of London, was the biggest sewer of all.

The talk continues with a description of ‘Garderobes’. These draughty cold places were a feature of many castles.

The monasteries had their ‘necessary houses’. In Canterbury the facility was 145 feet long! Tim describes Jerichos, earth closets , miner’s ‘netty’ and the ‘Zimbabwe long drop’.

Tim then talks about the ‘Thunder Box’. No explorer left home without one! And then there were the ‘night soil men’ who dealt with disposal.

The first British water closet was invented in 1596 by Sir John Harington. He was a godson of Queen Elizabeth I. 182 years later Joseph Bramah perfected the technology. It was in use for over 100 years.

The talk then introduces George Jennings.

Please click on one of the images as you listen to the talk to open the gallery.

The Farnham U3A site is at Farnham U3A Home Page.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A History Group 2019

Spending a Penny (B)

Season 2018 / 2019 – Talk 14 B – Spending a Penny

Spending a Penny (B) is the second part of the talk by Tim Davies. In this part George Jennings marries his first wife Mary Ann Coates Gill  in 1836. They had four children.

George Jennings established his company in Paris Street, Lambeth, in 1837. At this stage he worked virtually single handed.

Mary died in 1844. In 1850 he consulted on the sanitary needs for the Great Exhibition. His ‘necessary convenience’ at the Crystal Palace was used by over 827,00 people. The move to Sydenham required day and night working by his team.

In 1848 George Jennings married 16 year old Sophia Budd. They had 11 children.

The spring of 1865 saw a fire that destroyed his works. The insurance had lapsed! He built a new, larger works, nearby. The business thrived. George Jennings was keen to open public facilities but had to fight against the reactionary stance of many councils.

In 1872 he built a house in Nightingale Lane, Clapham, where he lived until he died 10 years later. The firm prospered and by 1887 employed over 1,000 people. The podcast takes you through the departments in Lambeth. It also talks about the South-Western Pottery and Terra-Cotta Works at Parkeston in Dorset.

We hear about the 0-4-0 saddle tank steam locomotive named ‘George Jennings’ that was still in use when the works closed in 1962.

Please click on one of the images as you listen to the talk to open the gallery.

The Farnham U3A site is at Farnham U3A Home Page.

AKM Music has licensed Media Magazine for use as the title music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A History Group 2019

Marconi (1)

Season 2018 / 2019 – Talk 13 a – Marconi (1)

Please note: This talk is in two parts and Marconi (1) is the first  part. Please scroll down to the second part after listening to this one. I regret that the sound quality varies during the recording due to issues with the PA system.

Alan Freeland tells us about the life of Marconi starting with his childhood and then his first experiments in Italy. He then move to Britain, after being ignored by the Italian Government as he felt it would be easier to raise the funds for his work.

William Preece, Chief Electrical Engineer of the Post Office, became interested in his work and supported him. Preece introduced Marconi’s work to the public through lectures in London.

After working from the Isle of Wight, Marconi set up an experimental base at the Haven Hotel in Sandbanks by Poole Harbour in Dorset. Marconi also visited the United States. At the invitation of  the New York Herald he provided the equipment used to send reports to the paper about the America’s Cup.

Alan continues with Marconi’s work to transmit across the Atlantic in order to break the power of the cable companies. By 1912 he had even invented an early form of GPS!

I have converted the presentation used at the talk into a series of images as it is too large to load. I have had to change or remove a number of the images in the presentation because of copyright reasons.

Please click on one of the images as you listen to the talk to open the gallery.

The Farnham U3A site is at Farnham U3A Home Page.

The title music is Media Magazine and is licensed from AKM Music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A History Group 2019

Marconi (2)

Season 2018 / 2019 – Talk 13 b – Marconi (2)

Please note: This talk is in two parts and Marconi (2) is the second  part.  I regret that the sound quality varies during the recording due to issues with the PA system.

Alan Freeland continues to tell us about the life of Marconi. This episode, Marconi (2), starts with the technology that Marconi brought to the world. Alan also looks at a technology timeline between 1830 and 1900.

The talk looks at the start of the wireless service 2LO which, in 1922, became the BBC. Wireless was just one of the many innovations that came from Marconi and his company. It was in 1914 that he predicted the mobile telephone!

Alan continues with his talk taking a look at Marconi’s ladies. Although Marconi was married, he enjoyed the company of ladies – particularly on his transatlantic voyages.

On ships the radio operator was a Marconi employee, using Marconi equipment. This was all hired to the shipping line.

Towards the end of the talk Alan tells us about Marconi’s increasing feelings for Italy. These feelings included an unfortunate association with Mussolini.

Please note: the language used in some material published during Marconi’s life, mentioned in this talk, would not be acceptable if published today.

I have converted the presentation used at the talk into a series of images as it is too large to load. I have had to change or remove a number of the images in the presentation because of copyright reasons.

Please click on one of the images as you listen to the talk to open the gallery.

The Farnham U3A site is at Farnham U3A Home Page.

The title music is Media Magazine and is licensed from AKM Music.

© The MrT Podcast Studio and Farnham U3A History Group 2019